"Soft Tissue Mobilization Techniques Are Effective in Treating Chronic Pain Following Cesarean Section"
Journal of Women's Health Physical Therapy
To determine whether soft tissue mobilization (STM) reduces chronic pain and improves impaired function & mobility resulting from C-section surgery...
"More than 1.27 million C-sections are performed annually in the United States, and of these, 6% to 18% result in significant chronic pain."
Multicenter randomized clinical trial
'Multicenter' = Having been conducted at multiple medical centers or clinics
'Randomized clinical trial' = Subjects were randomly assigned (in this case, to one of 2 groups)
28 subjects reporting chronic pain following C-section surgery
What They Did:
The 28 subjects underwent 4 treatment sessions...
The Treatment Sessions:
Group 1 - Received superficial abdomen and lumbothoracic massage, as well as superficial skin rolling of the painful scar.
Group 2 - Received the same treatment as group 1 plus abdominal myofascial release and direct deep scar mobilizations.
Preintervention Measures: 2 baseline measures were collected 4 weeks apart to demonstrate stability of symptoms (there was no change to any outcome during the baseline period)
Postintervention Measures: Outcomes were measured at 2 weeks postintervention, and again at 10 weeks
Pressure pain threshold (PPT) - The minimum force applied that produces pain
Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) - A patient-completed questionnaire that scores level of function (disability) in activities of daily living in those with low back pain
Global Rating of Change (GROC) - Provides a means of measuring self-perceived change in health status
Numeric Pain Rating Scale - Individuals self-report pain on a scale of 0-10 where 0 = no pain and 10 = worst imaginable pain
What They Found:
Scar mobility, PPT, ODI, and pain all showed statistically significant improvements in both groups
There were no significant differences between treatment groups on any outcome, with both groups showing improvement
GROC was “quite a bit better”
STM interventions are a useful, cost-effective treatment option for the many women with chronic C-section–related pain
Journal of Women's Health Physical Therapy: September/December 2018 - Volume 42 - Issue 3 - p 111-119